Actions that invalidate or not the fast

The Prophet said: “Who vomits intentionally must redo the fast.”

If a person feels sick in the stomach does not have to suppress the ‘urge to vomit, because it could be dangerous for him. (Majaalis Sharh Ramadaan, Ibn Uthaymeen, 67)
Who eats and drinks inadvertently break the fast, that is a blessing
of the Most High God, who wanted for you. In these cases, once it is realized
the thing, keep the same fasting and not interrupt, because it was something
involuntary.

The Prophet said: “Who, fasting eat or drink for distraction, continue well
fasting. It is God who fed and gave him a drink. “(Bukhari and Muslim)

“Who, during Ramadan, breaks the fast for distraction does not have to do it again _
not even atone. “(Darakatni)
If a person sees someone else who is eating because he has forgotten that in fasting, must remember him:

“… Help yourselves one another in righteousness and piety …” (Quran 5: 2)

The loss of blood (for a cut for example) does not nullify fasting.
If a person suffers from nose bleeding, his fast is still valid, because it is something outside of its control. (Fataawa al-Lajnah al-Daaimah, 10/264)

Ibn Abbas said: “Fasting is annulled by what goes in and not what comes out does not .” (Ibn abu
Shu’ayb)

Injections no made does not to bring food or minerals, eyewash, not invalidate the fast, inhalers for asthma does not invalidate the fast because they contain only the gas to the lungs.
Medicines used to gargle, spray or nasal drops, injections in the ears, dental cleanings, extractions or dental occlusion, use of siwaak or toothbrush, until it don’t arrive in the throat does not break the fast, gastroscopy which do not bring food not invalidate the fast .
Whatever inserted in the female genitalia for medical purposes does not invalidate the fast, also any instrument or medication inserted in the brain or spine.
The menstrual cycle invalidates the fast.

The atonement is required only for the acts done voluntarily, such as sex from sunrise to sunset -not it banned after the break, with the only married person course- and having eaten or drank.

Abu Hureira reported that a man came to the Prophet and said: “O Messenger of God are ruined! Asked the Prophet: ‘What is it that you ruined?’, ‘ I had a relationship with my wife during the fast of Ramadan ‘,’ You are in conditions to free a slave? ‘,’ No! ‘replied the man,’ You can feed 60 18 poor? ‘,’ Not ‘the man replied disconsolately and sat down. In that moment brought to the Prophet a large basket of datteri (بلح), the Prophet said: ‘Take these datteri (بلح)  and give it to the poor ‘,’ Who should I give if there is no more poor me? ‘said the man. At this point, the Prophet made a great smile and said, ‘So give it to your family’. “

After breaking the fast you can have sex with one’s wife or husband:

“It has been made permissible for you the night preceding fasting to go to your wives [for sexual relations]. They are clothing for you and you are clothing for them. Allah knows that you used to deceive yourselves, so He accepted your repentance and forgave you. So now, have relations with them and seek that which Allah has decreed for you. And eat and drink until the white thread of dawn becomes distinct to you from the black thread [of night]. Then complete the fast until the sunset. And do not have relations with them as long as you are staying for worship in the mosques. These are the limits [set by] Allah , so do not approach them. Thus does Allah make clear His ordinances to the people that they may become righteous. (Quran 2:187)

If the day comes and a person is in a state of janaba (impurities resulting in sexual intercourse), this does not have to do with his fast. He or she is permitted to delay doing ghusl, and in the case of janaba or impurities subsequent to menstruation or post-natal lochiazioni, until the sun rises, but you’d better hurry to do ghusl in order to pray. If a person who is fasting falls asleep and takes the ‘experience of a dream in which he have losses or ejaculations, this does not break his fast, according to the consensus of the scholars (ijmaa) and can complete it. Delaying in doing ghusl do not break the fast, but he should hasten to do ghusl in order to pray and to ensure that the angels are close to him.
Kiss, hug, shake, touch (chastely) and repeatedly looking at one’s wife, if a man is able to control himself, it is allowed.

Aisha said that the Messenger of Allah kiss his wives while he was fasting, and then she smiled. [Bukhari]

Among the actions that break the fast there are issues that are classified be like eating or drinking, such as taking medicines and pills by mouth, or injections of nourishing substances, or blood transfusions.
Those who need to break their fast in order to save someone whose life is in danger, may break their fast and do it later. This applies in case someone is drowning, or when the flames and needs to be pulled out.
If tears reach the throat of a person, or if a person applies oil to his hair or mustache, or use the ‘henna and feels the’ aroma in his throat, this does not break his fast. Use the ‘henna, kohl or oil does not break the fast. (See Majmoo al-Fataawa, 25/233, 25/245). The same applies to creams used to moisturize and soften skin.

There ‘s nothing wrong in smelling pleasant fragrances, using perfume or applying scented creams and the like. There ‘s nothing wrong by a person who is fasting that uses bukhuur (incense), until it uses it as tobacco. (Fataawa al-Lajnah al-Daaimah, 10/314).
Smoking breaks the fast, and can not be used as an excuse for not fasting. How can a sin be used as an excuse?
Immerse yourself in water or wrap themselves in wet clothes to cool does not break the fast. There ‘s nothing wrong in putting, pouring water on the head of someone to get relief from heat and thirst. Swimming is reprehensible, because it could result in the breaking of the fast (by swallowing water).

If a person breaks his fast, thinking that the sun has already set when it is not, to repeat the fast later on (according to the majority of scholars), because the principle is that it is still daylight, and a fact can’t is rejected in favor of something doubtful. (Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah thought that it is not necessary for a person in this situation redo fasting).
If the dawn comes and a person has food or drink in his mouth, the scholars agree that what he has to spit in his mouth, and his fast is valid. This is how the rule on who eats or drinks because it forgets, then remembers then who is fasting. If he hastens to spit out the food or drink in his mouth, his fast is still valid.

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